Adre du Plessis (USA)View bio
Adre du Plessis is Director of the Fetal Medicine Institute at Children’s National in Washington DC. As a fetal-neonatal neurologist, his career has focused on the immature brain, understanding its normal development, as well as the causes and consequences of abnormal brain development. Embracing its clinical, research and training aspects, he has been at the forefront of developing this unique emerging discipline. He is a graduate of the University of Cape Town Medical School, and spent his formative training years at Groote Schuur, Tygerberg, and Red Cross Hospital in Cape Town, as well as at Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in the Eastern Cape. He underwent child neurology training at St. Louis Children’s and Boston Children’s Hospitals under the mentorship of Joseph J. Volpe, the ‘father’ of neonatal neurology. Dr. du Plessis became the founding director of the first-ever dedicated clinical program for neonatal (and later fetal-neonatal) neurology at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard’s Longwood-area medical centers. Since assuming his current position as Chief of Fetal and Transitional Medicine and Director of the Fetal Medicine Institute at Children’s National Dr. du Plessis has overseen the development of a multidisciplinary clinical, research, and training program, that has a unique focus on the developing brain. Over the past 25 years his team has developed multimodal neuromonitoring devices that allow an unprecedented depth of continuous bedside inquiry into both the systemic support systems as well as autoregulatory systems intrinsic to the brain. A major focus of this work is on the developmental effects of preterm, even late preterm, exposure to the extrauterine environment on the immature brain.
F Groenendaal (Netherlands)View bio
Floris Groenendaal finished Medical School of the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 1984.
From 1984-1986 he worked at the Institute of Physiology I (Neurophysiology) of the Erasmus University Rotterdam and defended his PhD thesis: “Perinatal hypoxia and visual functions in infants and children” in January 1988.
From 1986-1991 he was trained in pediatrics in the Sophia Children’s Hospital in Rotterdam.
His fellowship neonatology was spent at the Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam (1991), and the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht (1991-1993).
In 1994 he spent his post-doc period at the Department of Physiology of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. The main focus of his scientific research is:
early detection of neonatal brain injury (including MR techniques) and neuroprotection.
In 2012 He finished obtained a master degree in Clinical Epidemiology at the Julius Center of the University Medical Center Utrecht.
Since April 1993 he is consultant neonatology at the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital/University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
At present he is associate professor of neonatology.
From 1984 research efforts of Floris Groenendaal were aimed at the effects of perinatal hypoxia on the central nervous system of the human neonate, as well as of animal models.
Since his employment by the Utrecht University/Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital research was part of the program Perinatal Functional Development of the Faculty of Medicine.
After returning to Utrecht his translational research focused on neuroprotective strategies after perinatal asphyxia and neonatal stroke.
Meanwhile his clinical research aimed at early diagnosis of acquired brain lesions in neonates, using cranial ultrasound, MRI and proton MRS, evoked potentials and aEEG.
Furthermore, neuroprotective strategies were examined in patients admitted to the NICU, including patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, neonatal stroke, or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In 2007/2008 he introduced therapeutic hypothermia in The Netherlands and Flanders.
Memberships of societies
active member of the European Society for Pediatric Research (ESPR, www.espr.info)
affiliate member of the Society for Pediatric Research (SPR, www.aps-spr.org)
member of the European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Neuropediatrics (ESMRN, www.esmrn.com)
member of the European Neonatal Brain Club (until 1-1-2012)
member of the Dutch Society of Pediatrics (NVK)
member of the Dutch Society of Perinatal Medicine
member of the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Geneeskunst
Scienfic achievements, scholarships, grants and prizes
He has been involved in many PhD studies, and has obtained grants from different sources. Publications cited in PubMed include more than 300 papers, and chapters in several text books of Neonatology.
Scholarships, grants and prizes include
– Ter Meulen Fonds, KNAW, Amsterdam 1993
– Sterproject Neurowetenschappen Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht 1995
– NWO AGIKO-stipendium 920-03-039
– Hersenstichting Nederland (Brain Foundation of the Netherlands) 10F02.07
– Dr.W.M.Phelps-Stichting voor Spastici 03.016
– Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis Onderzoekfonds 2003
– NWO ZonMW Doelmatigheidsonderzoek ‘Selection of preterm neonates at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders by segmentation of the brain using MRI’ 945-27-022
– Excellence in Academic Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht 2009-2010.
– NWO ZonMW Priority Medicines For Children: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Medication in Asphyxiated Newborns During Controlled Hypothermia.
PharmaCool National Multicenter Study. 40-41500-98-9002
– NWO ZonMW Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to regenerate the neonatal brain 40-41400-98-1103
Haresh Kirpalani (USA)View bio
I am a neonatal physician with my training from medical school to advanced fellow status in the UK; with further training at Toronto Hospital Sick Children, Canada. I am MSc qualified in Clinical Epidemiology (McMaster). For the last 8 years I have worked in the USA at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. I remain cross-appointed to the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at McMaster University, where I assist the Neonatal Research group (led and co-founded by myself, and Barbara Schmidt, and Robin Roberts). I am also the Founding Director of the Infant Chronic Lung Program at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University Pennsylvania.
I am committed to mentoring junior researchers and clinicians. I have been fortunate to have received several teaching and mentoring awards – the last being in 2015 – an award for Junior Faculty mentoring at Children’s Hospital Philadelphia.
I have been involved with randomized controlled trials (RCT) in either the neonatal ICU or the pediatric ICU since 1985. This involvement includes service on several data safety monitoring committees for RCTs. I am a passionate advocate of Evidence Based Medicine in neonatal trials, which I interpret as an imperative to have more high quality randomized evidence of therapies in the NICU. In accordance with this approach, I serve on the editorial founding board of an international organization “Evidence Based Neonatology” (https://ebneo.org/).
My prior RCT work was funded by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) and I hold current NIHCHD and NHLBI funding. I was also the alternate PI to the Neonatal Research Network of the NICHD at U. Pennsylvania, of which Dr. Barbara Schmidt was the PI.
My RCT experience began in 1985, as the trial coordinator at the Hospital for Sick Children for the High Frequency Oscillation (HiFi) study. I was a steering committee member for 2 major neonatal trials of inhaled nitric oxide funded by the Canadian Institute of Health Research and in which the Neonatal Research Network of the NICHD took part: the Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study (NiNOS) and the Early Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study (EiNOS) trials. I was the PI of a multi-national randomized controlled trial – funded by Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR): Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation trial NIPPV – comparing CPAP vs nasal IPPV non-invasive respiratory support, which enrolled 1012 infants of BW <1000 g.
Currently I am the Contact PI of a multi-national trial on the effects of Sustained Inflation in the delivery room in preterms (Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial). This has now closed and is in the final stages of reporting. I was also the PI of the Preterms In Need of Transfusion (PINT) study, funded by the CIHR. This was the largest neonatal RCT to examine whether random allocation to two different hemoglobin thresholds affect clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in infants with birth weights <1000 g. A further CIHR funded project (PINT-Outcome Study) followed these infants to 24 months to assess longer term outcomes. The PINT trials have had 4 papers published. This trial in post-hoc analyses possible benefits to a higher hemoglobin regimen. It set the stage for the large trial “Transfusion of Prematurity (TOP trial). I am the contact PD-PI of the TOP trial, awarded by NHLBI to randomize 2000 babies <1000 g BW to high or low hemoglobin transfusion thresholds. TOP has a primary outcomes of neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.
1. Kirpalani H, Millar D, Lemyre B, Yoder BA, Chiu A, Roberts RS; NIPPV Study Group. A trial comparing noninvasiveventilationstrategiesinpreterminfants.NEnglJMed.2013 Aug15;369(7):611-20.doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1214533.
2. Foglia EE, Owen LS, Thio M, Ratcliffe SJ, Lista G, Te Pas A, Hummler H, Nadkarni V, Ades A, Posencheg M, Keszler M, Davis P, Kirpalani H. The Sustained Aeration Infant Lung Trial. Trials. 2015; 16(1):601. PMCID PMC4372179
3. Kirpalani H, Whyte RK, Andersen C, Asztalos EV, Heddle N, Blajchman MA, Peliowski A, Rios A, LaCorte M, Connelly R, Barrington K, Roberts RS. The Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion (PINT) study:a randomized, controlled trial of a restrictive (low)versus liberal (high) transfusion threshold for extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2006 Sep; 149(3):301-307.
Positions and Honors
1976-1982 House Jobs & Senior House Registrar rotations Southampton, Portsmouth, Newcastle, UK 1982-1983 Senior Fellow NICU, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada 1983-1990 Assistant Professor, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada 1991-1997 Neonatal and Pediatric ICU: Associate Professor McMaster University Medical Centre;
Hamilton, Canada 1997-2007 Professor Pediatrics, McMaster University; thereafter Emeritus McMaster 2003-Present Associate Member, Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics McMaster University; member of the
Neonatal Trials Group at Hendersen Hospital, McMaster University 2007-Present Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania at Children’s Hospital of
Philadelphia, Division Neonatology 2005 Awarded the ‘Excellence in Teaching Award’ by the Professional Association of Interns and
Residents of Ontario’ – an award voted upon by junior staff across Ontario.2007
Awarded the “Teaching Excellence Award” – Associate-part-time category of the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics’ at McMaster University – granted for teaching of clinical epidemiology
2009 Istvan Seri Fellowship Teaching Award, by fellow vote, at CHOP, U Pennsylvania
2009 Honors Roll for Resident Teaching Children’s H of Philadelphia by resident vote
2010 Honors Roll for Resident Teaching Children’s H of Philadelphia by resident vote
2013 Honors Roll for Resident Teaching Children’s H of Philadelphia by resident vote
2015 ‘Mentor for Junior Faculty’ Award Children’s H of Philadelphia, U Pennsylvania.
Contributions to Science
Studies on neonatal respiratory disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Infant lung disease (or Respiratory Distress Syndrome) is still, world-wide one of the major causes of mortality in the preterm newborn. For survivors, an increasing burden of serious morbidity has been the chronic respiratory illness Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD). Since 1985 I have regularly published in peer reviewed literature about neonatal lung diseases. These ranged from describing a new entity of life- threatening disease in newborns (Necrotizing tracheobronchitis); moving through to animal work, and increasingly into RCTS of different RCTs of therapy. I have made three main contributions in this content area:
(i) Highlighting the importance of PEEP and the paucity of human data of what levels to set and how to do. In an animal study I used a PET method we had validated, to measure PET scanned of activated neutrophil in lungs. We showed that PEEP above the Lower Inflection Point reduced the PET 18FDG measured influx of activated neutrophils in acute lung disease, irrespective of whether lung damaging inflammation was caused by excess volutrauma or excess barotrauma. Yet our Cochrane review showed that the available RCT data is incredibly small. This suggests the current research agenda.
(ii) With the realization that baro-volu-trauma was responsible for survivors of acute RDS becoming chronic BPD patients, our field is very interested in non-invasive approaches to ventilation. While CPAP is helpful, it is far from a panacea. Regrettably we showed in a recent large multi-national RCT funded by Canadian Institute Health Research, that a popular form of therapy Non-Invasive Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure respiratory support was no better than CPAP in averting the primary outcome of death or BPD (cited above as Kirpalani H NEJM 2013). We have summarized the available data in the Cochrane review.
(iii) While BPD is recognized as a major health problem for the patients, families and health care system – its definition has not been straight-forward. With Dr Bamat,our group has validated a simple non-radiographic and safe method to use V/Q mismatch, providing a continuous measure of severity
Barbara Schmidt (USA)View bio
I am a neonatologist and clinical epidemiologist with a strong commitment to clinical research that improves our
collective ability to practice Evidence-Based Neonatal Medicine. To this end, I have led several large international neonatal randomized trials with clinically important, long-term outcomes such as growth and development: 1. The Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP); 2. The Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial; and 3. the Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT). From 2011 until my retirement from the University of Pennsylvania, I have been the center PI for the University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN). Together with my alternate PD/PI, Dr. Haresh Kirpalani, I have built a sizeable team of local colleagues and junior investigators who are enthusiastic about their participation in clinical research. I was also the Co-PI of the Data Coordinating Center for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) sponsored by NHLBI. One of the goals of this multi-center collaboration was the identification of predictors of respiratory outcomes that may serve as surrogate endpoints in future trials of prevention and therapy of respiratory diseases in preterm infants.
Positions and Honors
Positions and Employment
1976-77 Internship in Internal Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Freiburg, Germany
1978-82 Pediatric Residency, University Children’s Hospital, Freiburg, Germany
1982-83 Fellow in Hematology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
1983-85 Fellow in Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
1985-88 Research Fellow, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Supervisor: M. Andrew
1988 Resident IV Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
1989-93 Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
1993-98 Associate Professor, Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
1998 Professor, Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
1999-2007 Joint appointment, Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology and
Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
2007- Professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Part-time), Faculty of Health
Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
2007-2018 Professor of Pediatrics and Kristine Sandberg Knisely Chair in Neonatology, Perelman School
of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Staff Neonatologist, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Primary)
2008-2018 Senior Scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (Secondary)
2018- Professor Emeritus, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Other Experience and Professional Memberships
1995-2008 Associate Editor, Evidence Based Medicine
2002-2016 Member of the Data Monitoring Committees:
Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) – NIH, CIHR, and European agencies;
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network – NICHD
2004-2013 Editorial Board: Neonatology (formerly: Biology of the Neonate)
2004-2006 Awards Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada
2009 Member, Planning Committee: NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide
in Preterm Infants
1989 – Member, Canadian Pediatric Society/American Academy of Pediatrics
1992 – Member, Society for Pediatric Research
2009 – Member, American Pediatric Society
2012-13 Member, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Subcommittee, Primary Prevention of Lung Diseases
1982-1983 Funded for the Fellowship in Hematology by the German Research Foundation
1985-1987 Hospital for Sick Children Foundation, Toronto, Canada: Duncan L. Gordon Fellowship Award
1986 Postgraduate Research Award from the Canadian Hematology Society
1987 XIth Congress Award, International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Brussels,
1987-1988 Medical Research Council of Canada Fellowship
1988-1993 Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada: Research Scholarship
1993-1998 Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario: Career Investigator Award
1999-2001 Salary Support from Edith Ellis Estate, McMaster University
2006 Kristine Sandberg Knisely Lectureship Award; Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, The
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
2007 JM Bowman Lectureship Award, University of Manitoba, Canada
2008 11th Nils W. Svenningsen Memorial Lecture, Brugge, Belgium
2008 Society for Clinical Trials/Project Impact “Trial of the Year Award” for “Long-term effects of
caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity”
2010 Istvan Seri MD PhD Faculty Teaching Award, Division of Perinatal Neonatal Medicine
2012 Gerald Merenstein Lecture, Section on Perinatal Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics
2015 Member of the Order of Canada
2017 American Academy of Pediatrics: William Silverman Lecture
2018 Pediatric Academic Societies’ Annual Meeting: Lung Club Lecture
Contribution to Science
1. Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity
Caffeine and similar drugs have been used for more than 40 years to regulate the breathing of very preterm
babies, but without sufficient knowledge of the possible benefits and risks. As PI and Chair of the International
Steering Committee I launched the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) trial in 1999 to resolve this longstanding therapeutic uncertainty. The CAP trial enrolled over 2000 very low-birth weight infants and showed that caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity is effective and safe. Caffeine reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe retinopathy of prematurity, increases survival without neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and improves motor function at age 5 and 11 years.
a. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, for the 3 Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:2112-21.
b. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, for the
Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of
prematurity. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1893-1902.
c. Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW, Dewey D, Grunau RE, Asztalos EV, Davis PG, Tin W,
Moddemann D, Solimano A, Ohlsson A, Barrington KJ, Roberts RS; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity
(CAP) Trial Investigators. Survival without disability to age 5 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for
apnea of prematurity. JAMA. 2012; 307(3):275-82.
d. Doyle LW, Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Davis PG, Moddemann D, Grunau RE, O’ Brien K, Sankaran K,
Herlenius E, Roberts R; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Investigators. Reduction in
Developmental Coordination Disorder with Neonatal Caffeine Therapy. J Pediatr. 2014 Aug;
e. Marcus CL, Meltzer LJ, Roberts RS, Traylor J, Dix J, D’ilario J, Asztalos E, Opie G, Doyle LW, Biggs
SN, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey M, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons J, Costantini L,
Bradford R, Schmidt B; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity – Sleep (CAP-S) study. Long-term
Effects of Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity on Sleep at School-age. Am J Respir Crit Care
Med. 2014 Oct 1; 190(7):791-9. PMCID: PMC4299611
f. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Anderson PJ, Asztalos EV, Costantini L, Davis PG, Dewey D, D’Ilario J, Doyle
LW, Grunau RE, Moddemann D, Nelson H, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W; Caffeine for Apnea of
Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After
Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP
Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2017;171:565-72.
g. Mürner-Lavanchy IM, Doyle LW, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Asztalos EV,
Costantini L, Davis PG, Dewey D, D’Ilario J, Grunau RE, Moddemann D, Nelson H, Ohlsson A,
Solimano A, Tin W, Anderson PJ; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group.
Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity.
Pediatrics. 2018 Apr 11. pii: e20174047. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-4047. [Epub ahead of print]
2. Oxygen Saturation Targeting in Preterm Infants
Oxygen is one of the most common therapies in neonatal medicine because many extremely preterm infants
have impaired lung function. Yet, preterm infants are also particularly sensitive to the harmful effects of oxygen.
It has remained uncertain for several decades how to titrate oxygen effectively and safely in this vulnerable
population. In the early years of this century, 5 large randomized trials were launched in collaboration to compare
two pulse oximeter saturation target ranges. One of these 5 trials was the Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT) for
which I was the PI. Two of the other trials have yet to report their primary outcomes of death or disability at follow
up. To date, the 5 trials have produced disparate and controversial results that are still debated by the neonatal
a. Armbruster J, Schmidt B, Poets CF, Bassler D: Nurses’ compliance with alarm limits for pulse oximetry:
qualitative study. J Perinatol. 2010 Aug; 30(8): 531-4.
b. Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Moddemann D, Poets C, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Roberts RS; for the
Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT) Group. Effects of Targeting Higher vs Lower Arterial Oxygen Saturations
on Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2013;
c. Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Roberts RS. Trade-off between lower or higher oxygen saturations for extremely
preterm infants: The first Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting (BOOST) II trial reports its primary
outcome. J Pediatr. 2014 Jul;165(1):6-8
d. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Poets C, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Nelson H; Canadian
Oxygen Trial Group. Impact of Study Oximeter Masking Algorithm on Titration of Oxygen Therapy in
the Canadian Oxygen Trial. J Pediatr. 2014 Oct;165(4):666-71.e2.
e. Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Shah PS, Abbasi S, Bairam A, Harrold J, Roberts RS; Canadian Oxygen Trial
(COT) Group. Effects of Targeting Higher or Lower Oxygen Saturations in Centers with More Versus Less Separation between Median Saturations. J Pediatr 2016;178:288-291.e2
3. Neonatal Research Ethics
All investigators who are engaged in clinical research must pay close attention to the ethical conduct of their
studies, especially if the participants include vulnerable populations such as newborn infants. I have taken such
reflections one step further by conducting a couple of empirical studies on different aspects of neonatal research
ethics. We showed for the first time that parents who do or do not authorize their baby’s participation in a clinical trial weigh risks and benefits before making their decision; and we provided preliminary evidence to show that sick newborn infants who participate in a clinical trial have outcomes that are at least as good as those who are eligible for the trial but not enrolled.
a. Zupancic JAF, Gillie P, Streiner DL, Watts JL, Schmidt B. Determinants of parental authorization for
involvement of newborn infants in clinical trials. Pediatrics 1997; 99(1). URL:
b. Schmidt B, Gillie P, Caco C, Roberts J, Roberts R. Do sick newborn infants benefit from participation in
a randomized clinical trial? J Pediatr. 1999 Feb; 134(2):151-5.
c. DeMauro S, Cairnie J, D’Ilario J, Kirpalani H, Schmidt B. Honesty, Trust and Respect during Consent
Discussions in Neonatal Clinical Trials. Pediatrics. 2014 Jul; 134(1):e1-3.
4. Prediction of Long-Term Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants
The prediction of disability in survivors of extreme prematurity is inaccurate at birth or during the first week of
life. Prediction improves during the months-long stay in neonatal intensive care unit because acquired morbidities
are important determinants of long-term outcome. Together with my collaborators, I have examined in a series
of studies whether common neonatal morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury and severe
retinopathy of prematurity predict long-term disabilities of preterm infants, individually and in combination.
a. Schmidt B, Asztalos EV, Roberts RS, Robertson CM, Sauve RS, Whitfield MF for the Trial of
Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) Investigators. Impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia,
brain injury, and severe retinopathy on the outcome of extremely low-birth-weight infants at 18 months:
results from the trial of indomethacin prophylaxis in preterms. JAMA 2003; 289:1124-1129.
b. Bassler D, Stoll B, Schmidt B, Asztalos E, Roberts RS, Robertson C, Sauve R: Using a count of
neonatal morbidities to predict poor outcome in extremely low birth weight infants: Added role of
neonatal infection. PEDIATRICS 2009; 123:313-318. PMCID: PMC2829863
c. Schmidt B, Davis PG, Asztalos EV, Solimano A, Roberts RS. Association between severe retinopathy
of prematurity and nonvisual disabilities at age 5 years. JAMA 2014 Feb 5; 311(5):523-5.
d. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Asztalos EV, Opie G, Bairam A, Solimano A, Arnon S,
Sauve RS; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Investigators. Prediction of Late Death or
Disability at Age 5 Years Using a Count of 3 Neonatal Morbidities in Very Low Birth Weight Infants. J
5. Patent Ducts Arteriosus (PDA) Management
Another theme of my clinical research portfolio has been the diagnosis and management of a PDA in very
preterm infants. The following 4 citations are a selection from a larger group of publications on this topic. The
Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterm (TIPP) contributes almost 90% of the available data from
randomized trials on the longer-term outcomes in infants exposed to this therapy. Our manuscript on the possible
adverse effects of surgical PDA was critical in alerting the neonatal and surgical communities to the possible
risks of this previously common therapy.
a. Schmidt B, Davis P, Moddemann D, Ohlsson A, Roberts R, Saigal S, Solimano A, Vincer M, Wright
L, for the TIPP investigators. Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birthweight
infants. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344:1966-1972.
b. Kabra N, Schmidt B, Roberts R, Doyle L, Papile L, Fanaroff A, and TIPP Investigators: Increased
Risk of Neurosensory Impairment after Surgical Closure of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely-
Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Further Analyses from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms.
J Pediatr 2007; 150:229-34.
c. Schmidt B, Seshia M, Shankaran S, Mildenhall L, Tyson J, Lui K, Fok T, Roberts R; Trial of
Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms Investigators. Effects of prophylactic indomethacin in extremely
low-birth-weight infants with and without adequate exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med. 2011 Jul; 165(7):642-6. PMCID: PMC3397141.
d. DeMauro SB, Cohen MS, Ratcliffe SJ, Abbasi S, Schmidt B. Serial echocardiography in very preterm
infants: a pilot randomized trial. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Nov; 102(11):1048-53. PMCID: PMC3867206.
e. Jensen EA, Dysart KC, Gantz MG, Carper B, Higgins RD, Keszler M, Laughon MM, Poindexter BB,
Stoll BJ, Walsh MC, Schmidt B; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development Neonatal Research Network. Association between Use of Prophylactic Indomethacin and
the Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants. J Pediatr 2017;186:34-40.
Peter Reynolds (UK)View bio
Peter Reynolds is a Consultant Neonatologist at St. Peter’s Hospital in Surrey, UK. His main interests are focussed on improving outcomes through adopting a less-invasive, evidence-based approach to neonatal care, and to look for improvements in existing care to ensure optimal delivery and improved outcomes. His interests include the use of nasal High Flow in babies, with recent publications including clinical outcomes of babies receiving High Flow without CPAP and also the first clinical use of a new automatic oxygen controller. He works with leading companies in the medical devices industry such as Inspiration Healthcare to provide clinical leadership for product development in the neonatal world. He is currently part of a small UK expert group who will be publishing new consensus guidelines for the use of surfactant in RDS, and has also recently published work on improving the administration of surfactant via endotracheal fine catheter (LISA). He intends to have completed a study of a novel low-cost inflatable incubator and to be able to share these results with USANA attendees by the time of the meeting in 2019.
Click here to download the provisional programme.018082 USANA PROGRAMME7
CPD points will be applied for by Stellenbosch University.